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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

坚持一个中国的政策,这是中美关系的政治基础,不是风云变幻能够动摇的,也动摇不得。有了这样一个政治基础,中美合作的前景是广阔的。

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与此同时,前第五届和声明星 Camila Cabello证明了她的独唱生涯正在起飞,因为她的首张单曲《Havana》获得了最佳流行音乐奖。她的胜利意味着Taylor Swift失去了另一个奖项,尽管这对于歌手来说只是众多收获中的一个,但是近期她因为一年的沉寂过后又重新成为焦点。
根据《人民日报》的一份报告,截至2016年年底,中国的电影银幕已达到41179块,另外新增1612家电影院和9552块电影银幕。
美国两个城市的生活成本都有了显著增长,洛杉矶上升了19个名次进入前十。

他补充说道:“我很兴奋能有机会重返中国,并享受这个国家的文化以及把NBA现场比赛的激动直接带给中国球迷。”
2. 《头脑特工队》,导演:彼得·道格特(Pete Docter)。
不要马上接受工作录用

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

重点钢企主营业务亏损了165亿 钢铁电商“野蛮”生长

其实,在第一部iPhone手机发布的前一年,LG集团已经推出了全触屏手机。虽然那也不是第一台触屏手机。1992年,世界上第一台触屏手机IBM Simon发布。而触屏技术在"西蒙"之前已经出现。1965年,E·A·约翰逊发明了第一个触屏设备——平板电脑,截止到1995年,一直由空中交通管制员使用。本特·斯顿普和弗兰克·贝克(Frank Beck)在20世纪70年代早期发明了电容式触屏,与约翰逊所发明触屏不同的是,它不能用手指操作,而是需要使用触控笔。在1971年,山姆·赫斯特发明了第一台电阻式触屏,他称之为"电子图表"。手指和触控笔都可以对它进行操作。在1985年,惠普公司发明了世界上第一台触屏电脑H-P150。在1993年,苹果公司也发布了第一个触屏设备——牛顿个人电子助理设备。但此产品并不成功,它的销量很低。
招聘经理看错了简历。
Cliff Stevenson, an anti-dumping expert who publishes the report based on data filed with the WTO, said the surge in US cases was driven largely by the steel industry. The increase also represented the range of countries from China to Australia, the UK and the Netherlands against which US companies were willing to file anti-dumping complaints.

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

持续推进大众创业、万众创新。
这张专辑中十分突出的一首歌《Him》(《他》)以低调的方式讲述了一个有关同性恋和文化偏执的催人泪下的故事,是一首倡导非异性恋者公民权的歌曲。
老实说,如果你想观看一部让你大笑不停的网飞原创影片时,请去看《不可思议的杰西卡?詹姆斯》,因为这部轻松浪漫的喜剧片会让你笑到爆。

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • Amid rising pollution and a strengthening yuan, the capital city saw its tourist numbers drop to 4.20 million visits from January to November from 5.01 million visits in 2012, according to China Daily, citing a report from China Tourism Academy and Beijing Commission of Tourism Development. An earlier report based on a survey of domestic travel agents showed that visitors to the capital declined by roughly 50% in the first three-quarters of the year compared with a year earlier.
  • 红木家具回购市场尚不成熟
  • “New Yorkers have been waking up and realizing this long period of prosperity has wreaked a little bit of havoc on things that we think of as classic New York,” said Simeon Bankoff, the executive director of the Historic Districts Council, noting that 2015 will mark the 50th anniversary of the New York City landmarks preservation law. “Things we always thought were going to be there are just closing left and right.”
  • 广东清远住建局:备案价不得上调
  • 中国制造首先要防“马桶盖陷阱”
  • 你经常烦躁吗?
    这篇文章发表后,美国参议院很快投票通过了《反就业歧视法》(Employment Non-Discrimination Act)。这样,在工作中歧视LGBT群体也有可能成为违法行为。这项法案即将提交众议院审议。

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 多家房企借助可转债融资 多用于项目开发, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

2005年-2014年智能家居业吸引5.5亿美元风险投资

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

铝合金门窗将迈向时尚化智能化

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • Late last year, the World Health Organization declared that Zika virus was no longer a global emergency. But the disease’s effects on babies who may live for decades are only beginning to be understood. In northeastern Brazil, where links between the virus and birth defects like microcephaly were first detected, families struggle to give the best lives possible to stricken babies. Researchers hope to find clues about the virus’s effects on the fetus by studying pairs of twins in Brazil in which one was born with birth defects and the other was not.
    A jailed con artist who falls in love with another inmate and escapes prison multiple times could only be the work of fiction, but this is more or less the real story of Steven Jay Russel. Much like his film counterpart, played by Jim Carrey, Russell was originally sent to prison for fraud. He escaped his first sentence to be with his partner Jim Kemple, who at the time was dying from AIDS. Russell was found two years later and returned to prison. Kemple died soon after.
  • 该项目的规模较小,为50人左右,这不仅令该学院得以遴选非常有经验的学员,还使得学员之间非常亲近。
    Apple Inc. CEO Steve Jobs introduces the iPad 2 on stage during an Apple event in San Francisco, California in this March 2, 2011,
    con全部+tin拿住+uous→连续不断的
    Attention, travel lovers. You may not have made any travel plans yet, but the choices for next year’s best destinations are already out. Recently, the well-known travel guide publisher Lonely Planet issued its Best in Travel 2014 selection. Here, we pick a few countries from its top 10 list to give you a taste.
    6. Charlize Theron - $16.5 million

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • “瓷房子”拍卖一波三折:法院三次撤回拍卖
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 楼市“金九”落空 四季度大概率降温

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

随着俄罗斯货币卢布一再对其他货币贬值,近年来去往俄罗斯旅游的旅客也在逐渐增多。
May its blessings lead into a wonderful year for you and all whom you hold dear.祝福你及你所爱的人新的一年中万事如意。
国家统计局最近开始跟踪研究的大城市的房价数据就支持这种可能性。
The US box office, which includes totals from Canada, hit $11.1 billion, an 8 percent increase year-over-year, and was credited to several smash hits, including Jurassic World ($652 million domestically), Avengers: Age of Ultron ($459 million) and Inside Out ($356 million).
1950年巴西首次承办世界杯,由于要在家照顾卧病在床的母亲,巴西球迷朱蒂尔·桑乔·贝尔蒙特错过了巴西与乌拉圭的决赛。六十四年过后,贝尔蒙特用原版未曾使用的决赛门票换取了三张本届世界杯决赛的入场券。
截止发稿时为止,在中国社交媒体上仍然能够找到一些被泄露的照片和视频。
●"President Obama Confirms He Will Refuse To Leave Office If Trump Is Elected"

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • 上榜的12所美国学院平均而言是性别比例最为平衡的,女性学员比例为48%。
  • 2015年家居行业转型角逐4万亿市场规模
  • 喜剧类最佳女演员: 茱莉亚?路易斯-德瑞弗斯(Julia Louis-Dreyfus),《副总统》(Veep)
    The remarks by Recep Tayyip Erdogan come less than 24 hours before Dutch voters go to the polls in a national election that has been coloured by a heated debate about the role of Islam in Dutch society, spurred by anti-Islam candidate Geert Wilders. Mr Wilders’ Freedom party (PVV) is polling second in the race.
  • 周学军:明年仍是LED产业痛苦期 替换潮3年达顶峰
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • adj. 浪漫的
    床垫内的传感器可以检测压力和发送邮件给你的应用程序,它不会放过任何一个细节。它不仅检测床上运动,还可记录强度和速度。
  • 1. Apple
    The recovery may help allay some of the gloom around emerging market countries, many of which used strong export growth as a springboard for rapid economic advancement in the early years of this century, before the export boom turned to bust.
  • According to Putin's most recent income declaration, he earned roughly 8.9 million rubles ($137,000) in 2015.
    6、Social media addiction
  • pre前,de,cess走,or人:在前面走的人-前辈
    On Thursday it published its mascot for 2016, the Year of the Monkey, and instantly it became a hit on the Internet; unfortunately some people deemed it "very ugly".
    Who is hosting the 2014 Oscars?
  • 余秀华
    Warm greetings and best wishes for the New Year!致以热烈的祝贺和良好的祝福,新年快乐。
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 陶瓷企业与供应商“智斗”内幕 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

德化陶瓷产业研发节能新技术 无烟柴窑获国家专利

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

房贷利率88折仍是主流 部分明年才能降月供

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

10年前买学区房变普通房 开发商称协议到期

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

贾跃亭牵手李东生 智能家居大战一触即发

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • A 19-year-old girl, referred to as Guo Lingling (this may be a pseudonym), was allegedly struck and kicked repeatedly by her so-called instructors after failing to ask permission to go to the bathroom. An autopsy report showed she died from skull injuries and brain damage.
  • I know this takes time, but it'll ensure you really know your stuff. And that's why you're going to school. Right?
  • 精准定位农村人居环境整治引领行动落地

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • 3、消极
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • Wade was probably a little easier to stop back in high school before he had filled into his 6'4'' frame that makes him so unstoppable today.
    组建或加入一个学习小组
    1. Love what you do.
  • Children and hobbies do not belong on a résumé. And never, ever say, "Now that my kids are in college, I'm ready to get back in the workforce."

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • Be passionate about learning.
  • 二三线城市降价现恶性竞争 曾秘密协议不能降价
  • fig做,制作+ure →做出的状态→形象,人物

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 30城楼市松绑效果调查:仅4城成交持续回升
  • Household substance abuse
  • 年尾申城现集中推盘潮 上周新建商品房共成交986套
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

58集团设50亿元房产基金为行业注入强心剂 共建服务长效机制

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 照明卖场普遍“拼硬件、拼环境” 未抓住重点
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 链家左晖:中国租房比例将越来越高
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

“The Man Who Knew is an impressive work of scholarship,” Lionel Barber, editor of the FT and chair of the book award judges, said. “It’s a masterpiece of political economy and, above all, it’s a great and enjoyable read.”

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

1. 芝加哥大学布斯商学院
Graduates of Tsinghua University make more money, on average, than those from any other college in China, results of a recent survey showed.
周期性理论的依据是,新投资不足将导致两三年或五年后出现供应紧张。大量的项目已被延迟,但这对于项目经理而言,不过是要想办法削减成本的一种信号。许多项目经理目前就在这么做。
25 July
大小:3073平方英尺(约286平方米)
Qualcomm
年度故事将是纽约对911主谋穆罕默德(Khalid Sheikh Mohammed)的审判。
Getting sector calls right was the least of any investor’s problems this year because, outside of the brilliance of U.S. stock gains, the lights were off around the world.
脸书首席执行官扎克伯格在论坛上表示,"人工智能将在未来5至10年内理解视觉和听觉等感觉,并能比人类更好地掌握语言。"
积极稳妥去杠杆。

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

废旧家具“无家可归” 如何处置成难题

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • 达奇斯说:阿迪达斯在今年的12个月里增加了3400万名新粉丝。公司把粉丝们带动了起来,粉丝们一整年都在进行积极的讨论,公司因而从中受益。
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • “Nick is an exceptional product thinker,” Adam Cahan, Yahoo’s senior vice-president of mobile and emerging products, said. “He does represent a generational shift in the kinds of things he is thinking about and what it means to be truly mobile. That generation is not just mobile-first, they are mobile only. That’s a different point of view.”
  • 传统装修淡季 家居业忙着“合伙”
  • 在2015年,中国电影票房销售额创历史新高,超过了440亿人民币,即68亿美元。而国产片票房在其中占据了很大一部分。
  • 人民日报:严控不良中介恶意“炒租”
  • INDOORS: This house was completed around 1848 and last updated in 2008. The front door has a transom and sidelights of red glass etched with a leaf motif. The first floor has a large living room with crown molding and two fireplaces, one of which warms the formal dining area. Off the living room is a family room with raised wall paneling, a wet bar and another dining area. French doors open to a slate patio. Several rooms have views of Little Narragansett Bay.

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 税收协同共治让减税降费政策平稳落地
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • 4.统计学家
  • 希萨柯既是一位不可或缺的政治导演,也是当代电影中的伟大诗人之一。他为北部马里圣战者管辖之下的生活所绘的图像既残酷又惊人,但也温柔、慷慨儿惊人的有趣。希萨柯并没有把暴力极端分子人性化,而是展示出,他们已经成了这种人,也反映出我们身上普遍的、悲剧的天性。但他的影片还坚持认为,反对狂热主义,唯一有效而且道德的方式就是人道主义。他以反讽而正直的方式言说了这一观点,或许最重要的是,以艺术的方式言说了这一观点。

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

2018楼市 换二手房是最大“刚需”

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